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Neil Franklin's Computer Folklore/History Links Page

Visited Links

The MOS 6567/6569 video controller (VIC-II) and its application in the Commodore 64

Welcome to 6502.org!
Simple Microcomputers and Trainers
What is the KIM-1?
KIM-1 schematic
Build Your Own KIM-1 with Ruud Baltissen
Synertek SYM-1 Resources
Tutorials and Primers
65C02 Opcodes
65C816 Opcodes
Beyond 8-bit Unsigned Comparisons
André's 8-bit pages
GeckOS/A65 Operating System
CS/A65 and Gecko Computer
PET index
PET index - versions
Commodore BASIC history
Commodore PET Programming Model
Roll your own PET4032 (Fat40)
Bil Herd helping me out - a lesson in hardware design
Steve J. Gray's Homepage
The "Colour PET" Project Page
The PET/CBM Editor ROM Project

DEC PDP-1 (greeng3)
Programmed Data Processor-1 Handbook
Picture Full
Picture Console
Picture Status lights
Picture Type 30 Osc

Picture separate Console with CRT version

The Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-8 (Douglas W. Jones)
A Programmer's Reference Manual for the PDP-8
DEC's 1965 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
DEC's 1967 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
DEC's 1974 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
PDP-8 CPU Module Maps
DEC Omnibus Modules
The PDP-8 Collection
Notes on the History of the DEC PDP-8
The Control Data Corporation 160 Computer
Photos of the Control Data Corporation 160 Computer
A Programmer's Reference Manual for the CDC-160

Picture of Doug Jones' pdp8/e emulator front panel

ersatz11 PDP-11 Emulation System (dbit)

Here is an official product announcement for the 4004, for anyone who is interested

Sinclair / Science of Cambridge MK14

Boards and Components
Inside the Altair

PDP-8 Frequently Asked Questions

PDP-10 index (Joe Smith)
Timeline at Digital.com
PDP-10 opcodes, numeric order
PDP-10 Machine Language
PDP models
PDP10 models
VT100-series Torture Test
Summary of ANSI standards for ASCII terminals
XKL TD-1 newer

PDP-6 Home Page (Tom Knight)
DEC System Module Home Page

Carl Friend's Minicomputer "Museum" (Carl R. Friend)
- The Catalogue -
Digital Equipment Corporation KI-10 Central Processor
Digital Equipment Corporation PDT-11/150 system
Digital Equipment Corporation VK-100 ("GiGi") system
Digital Equipment Corporation VAXstation 3100 M76

The origin of Spacewar (J. M. Graetz)

Spacewar Readme
Index of /groups/el/projects/spacewar/sources

Welcome to the *New* Project 64!
Project 64 FAQ
Project 64 Introduction and Stuff
Index in plain ASCII text
Project 64 Links
Project 64 Hardware Dox

DEC 36-bit computers
Manuals for DEC 36-bit Computers
DECsystem-1080/1090 System Description
DECsystem-10/DECSYSTEM-20 Processor Reference Manual
Maintenance Prints for DEC 36-bit Computers

Eric's Eccentric Emporium of Egregiously Effervescent Effluvium, Etc.
Retrocomputing (Eric Smith)
PDP-10 Model Information
DECSYSTEM-2065 Unloading
Intel iAPX-432 Micromainframe
Hewlett-Packard Calculators
HP Calculator Memory Sizes
HP Voyager Calculator Variants
HP Calculator Chips
Microcode-Level Calculator Simulation (HHC 2004)
Do-It-Yourself RPN Calculator Hardware (HHC 2005, Richard Ottosen)

PDP-10 Serial Number 1354 (Scott Statton)

MicroVAX/VAXstation Systems FAQ
MicroVAX/VAXstation Systems Text FAQ

ACM Classic Papers Monthly
Reflections on Trusting Trust (Ken Thompson)
Reflections on Trusting Trust (.PDF)
Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks
The Anti-Mac Interface
Simplicity Betrayed (precise emulation)

Usenet Olympics

The Byte Fiasco (Jerry Pournelle)

The Hercules System/370, ESA/390, and z/Architecture Emulator
Introduction to Generating and Running OS/360 on Hercules

Dan's Collection of Old IBM "Iron"
IBM System 360 Model 30 Operator Control Panel
Project Bring-it-Back-to-Life 3, IBM System 370 Model 135
Project Bring-it-Back-to-Life 4, IBM System 370 Model 155

The Unix Heritage Society
PDP Unix Preservation Society Home Page
FAQ on the PUPS Archive and Unix on the PDP-11
What Unixes run on What PDPs?
UNIX Installation Instructions
Setting up Unix - Sixth Edition
Setting Up Unix - Seventh Edition
Regenerating System Software
Installing and Operating 2.9BSD
Installing and Operating 2.11BSD on the PDP-11
Details of the PUPS Archive
Related Images and Photos
Related Web Pages and On-line Information
Welcome to Quasijarus!
Architectures Supported as Mainstream
supports various VAX hardware
VAX Architecture Overview
Quasijarus Consortium Official VAX Terminology

The PDP-11 FAQ (HTML, newer version)

The PDP-11 FAQ (ASCII, older version)

Highgate's PDP-8 Page
Index of /pdp8/photos
Run a PDP-8 on Yet Another PDP-8 Web Site

pdp-11 (Ákos Varga)
The Pre-Life of a Legend is another Legend
How the PDP-11 Was Born
PDP-11/20, /15
PDP-11/40, /35
PDP-11/45, /50, /55
PDP-11/05, /10
PDP-11/23, /24, /23+
MicroPDP-11/83, /84
Computer collections and other interesting places

Pete Siemsen's TECO collection
alt.lang.teco ftp-able docs/tutorials for TECO: where?
List of TECO Commands, TECO Version 1132

Blinkenlights Archeological Institute
Pop Quiz: What was the first personal computer?

Re: a naive question (Strychalski ASCII)
The Why and Wherefore
The Great Computer Dark Ages -- ASCII

The Multics Scheduler
Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation (thvv)
The History of Electronic Mail (thvv)

Acorn BBC Micro

Index of /pub/pdp10
Index of /pub/pdp10/info
KL10 Paging
Massbus Pinout and RP06 Drive Regs
The pager used for ITS
PCLSRing: Keeping Process State Modular
Index of /pub/pdp10/its
Index of /pub/pdp10/tops10
Index of /pub/pdp10/tops10/decus

Paul Pierce's Computer Collection
The PDP-8 Family
front panel
More PDP-8 Pictures

Run a PDP-8 on Yet Another PDP-8 Web Site
Site Map
PDP-8/E and PDP-8/M Computer Information
PDP-8/E Picture Top view of 8E and boards
PDP-8/E Picture G619 core without cover
PDP-8/E Picture Closeup of core mats for single bit
PDP-8/E Picture G227 X-Y core driver
PDP-8/E Picture G104D core sense inhibit board
TU56 DECtape Drive Information
DF32 and DS32 Drive Information

Old computers
PDP-8 in rack
PDP-8 closeup to switches
PDP-8/I racks
PDP-8/I cpu rack open
WT-78 terminal

Login to the... VAXbar

The Universal Library - Saving Bell Books
Computer Structures: Readings & Examples - C. Gordon Bell, Allen Newell
Computer Engineering - C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, John E. McNamara
Designing Computers and Digital Systems

Core Memory

David G. Conroy - FPGA-Based Retrocomputing
PDP-4/X System Reference Manual
front panel program
PDP-8/X System Reference Manual
front panel program

Moving Old Iron - A Series, Move Report: PDP-8s and PDP-11/34a

The Computer Collection
The IBM 1410 Data Processing System
PDP-8/L and PDP-12
The PDP-11 Family
Terminals and Peripherals

Smithsonian Interview with Gordon Bell
Computer Structures: Principles and Examples


Grant's homebuilt electronics
Sinclair ZX80 - How to build your own ZX80/ZX81
Jupiter Ace - How I built my own ...and details to allow you do the same
The Compukit UK101 - How to build your own micro UK101
Grant's 8-chip (or 7-chip) 6502 computer
Grant's 6-chip 6809 computer
Grant's 7-chip Z80 computer
Appendix A - Modifications for 32K RAM
CP/M on breadboard
Monitor and keyboard controllers


nocrew's PDP-10 stuff
PDP-10 Processors
the PDP-6 the KA10 and the KI10
Directory listing of /its/alan/ (ITS emacs, info, sysdoc, system, teco)

The Foonly F1 Computer

PDP-10 Software Archive
TOPS-10-V603-MAIN-MON (Extracted files)
KLAD Diagnostics Sources
7.04 DOCC tape
TOPS-10 Operating System Commands Manual
TOPS-10 User Utilities Manual
TOPS-10 Operator's Guide
TOPS-10 Software Installation Guide

These are pictures of KS10 S/N 4469
This is the front of the KS itself
Here is the TU45
And this is the VT100 I'm using for a console

Historical and Hysterical Microcomputers Page
Intel 4004 - World's First Microcomputer
4004 - Intel SIM4-01 (136kb)
4004 CPU Photo (94kb)

CSIRAC's vital statistics
The Design
Main Store
The Console

Space Games of Fame

Computing at Columbia Timeline
The IBM 360/91
explanation of the buttons, knobs, dials, and switches
The DEC VT100 Terminal
The DECSYSTEM-20 at Columbia University (1977-1988)

Al Kossow's House-O-Hax
Al's Xerox Workstation Collection
The Minicomputer Orphanage

Origins and Development of TOPS-20

UNIVAC Memories
Minus Zero

Out Of The Garage And Into The Museum Computer Preservation Is The New Old Thing

The Corestore
DEC10 (KL-10 pictures)
Corestore Collection - Real terminals, emulated systems...

Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Third Edition by John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson

PDP-6 display (86K)

The Computer History Simulation Project (SIMH)
Available Simulators
Software Kits
System Photographs
Papers on Simulation and Historic Systems
Preserving Computing's Past: Restoration and Simulation


Build a Nixie Tube Digital Clock
Display and counting tubes
Analogue to digital conversion by glassware!

UNIVAC I: The First Mass-Produced Computer

The Development of the C Language
Very early C compilers and language
Computing Science Technical Report No. 102: The C Language Calling Sequence
USL vs. BSDI documents

A User Machine in a Time-Sharing System (B.W.Lampson)

ITS - The Incompatible Timesharing System
Index of /u/mirian/its/files/
Building an ITS from scratch on the Supnik PDP-10 simulator

Index of /comp-hist
working file 126. as of May 8, 2000
Digital Computer Museum Catalog (1981)
A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems
Example Tour
CDC 160A
GE-625 / 635 Programming Reference Manual

DEC PDP-10 Emulation

ZX81 in one FPGA
ZX81 in one Complex PLD

Interviewee: Masatoshi Shima (4004)
25 Microchips That Shook the World

The F-14A Central Air Data Computer Microprocessor - The World's First Microprocessor Chip Set
F14A Microprocessor Design Paper
F14A Microprocessor Chip Set

The Evolution of Forth
Table of Contents
Chuck Moore's Programming Language
Development and Dissemination
Forth Without Chuck Moore
Hardware Implementations of Forth
Present and Future Directions

Pictures from the Tymshare facility on Bubb Road in Cupertino, CA

Dan Murphy's TENEX and TOPS-20 Papers

PDP-10 KI-10 console
PDP-10 KA-10
VT05 + Teletype

Meet the Family
Terminals FAQ
VT05 Alphanumeric Display Terminal Reference Manual
DECscope Users' Manual (VT-5x)
VT55-E, F, H, J DECgraphic Scope Users' Manual
VT100 Series Technical Manual
VT220 Programmer Reference Manual
VT240 Series Programmer Pocket Guide
Installing and Using the VT320 Video Terminal
VT320 Soft Character Sets
VT320 Fonts
VT330/VT340 Programmer Reference Manual Volume 2: Graphics Programming
14 Sixel Graphics

DEC ReGIS Graphics News

Archive of Video Terminal Information
General Information
Sixel Graphics News (RE: What is SIXEL?)
DEC Terminals

Sweet Sixteen

Nixie & Dekatron Tubes

World Power Systems
Nixie Indicators and Decimal Counting Tubes
Model 11 Nixie Clocks

Welcome to Cathode Corner
The NC600 Nixie Desk Clock from Cathode Corner
Here is the scope clock in a Plexiglas cabinet
More Info Here
SC60 Scope Pocket Watch from Cathode Corner

Nixie Tube Digital Desk Clock (and Wrist Watch)

The Original 'Lambda Papers' by Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman

Commodore and Apple II Resources
Introducing ... the CommodoreOne

TOPS-20 on a palmtop

the flying head, the hair, the dirt particle...

C64DX/C65 System Specification

Historic Documents in Computer Science

Interview with Bob Yannes (C64 SID designer)

The High Voltage SID Collection

nice PDP-8/S picture

Bit-Slice Design: Controllers and ALUs

The Mark-8 Mini Computer
The Mark-8 Minicomputer (Jon Titus)

Implementation of a List Processing Machine (Thomas F Knight)

Version 7 Upgrade
Download v7upgrade-0.0.2.tar.gz

The Cray-Cyber Project - interactive access to supercomputer

US4677890: Sound interface circuit (Patent Docs for SID Chip)

Core Memory (with a little Theory)

SJ: PSR Support on NOS and NOS/BE (Please stop submitting PSR's)

MC14500 ICU

Imlac PDS-1

Imlac Anatomy (PDS-1D)

ZX-TEAM-homepage www.zx81.de

IBM 360 front pannel

E2PROM Programmer
Electrocute a Hotdog
A Brief History of Automatic Computers
Intel 4004 CPU
4004 Single Chip 4-bit P-Channel Microprocessor
Nikola Tesla

Recollections of Early Chip Development at Intel (Chip Numbering System)

The Intel 4004
Federico's October 2001 Speech

DEC XY Display Simulator (Phil Budne)

tt: Tetris for Terminals

Southwest Technical Products Corp - Michael Holley's SWTPC 6800/6809 documentation collection
Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter
CT-1024 Terminal System Kit (TV Typewriter II)
Radio Electronics TV Typewriter II
Letter from Bill Gates (a.k.a. "The Software Flap")

Atari 2600 Hacks
Atari 2600 Programming
2600 101
Stella Programmer's Guide

Bob Bemer and Communication (ASCII)
The Great Curly Brace Trace Chase
That Powerful ESCAPE Character -- Key and Sequences
EBCDIC and the P-Bit (The Biggest Computer Goof Ever)

Black box vs. showcase (electromechanical Pong)

Brian Provinciano's The Low Level: Hardware
The Devtendo

C64 Unlimited
Games Archive


Mein Rechner tut's auch ohne Strom...
Abakus und Rechenbretter
Rechenschieber mit logarithmischen Skalen
Kolonnenaddierer und Zählgeräte
Lehrmittel (darunter Digi-Comp

The Original Macintosh

My Collection of Vintage Machines
ASR 33 Teletype
IMSAI 8080
Processor Technology SOL-20

First Computermuseum of Nova Scotia
The Kenbak 1 - The first Personal Computer

TECO Pocket Guide

The Electronics Australia EDUC-8 microcomputer
EDUC-8 architecture description

Micro Professor MPF-1

The HP 9100: The Initial Journey
The HP 9100 Project: An Exothermic Reaction
Tom Osborne?s Story in His Own Words
The HP 9100?s PC-Board ROM

Welcome to Vern Graner's KIM-1 Page
Photo Gallery
System Docs for the KIM-1

Daves Old Computers
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800 - Main Unit
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800 - ADM3A Terminal
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800 - Documentation
Daves Old Computers - IMSAI 8080

Daves Old Computers - IBM 5100
5100 PALM logic module
Daves Old Computers - IBM 5100 Disassembled

Daves Old Computers - Calculators and Slide Rules

Daves Old Computers - TRS-80
RadioShack-Tandy Color Computer/Dragon
Daves Old Computers - Dunfield 6809 - Documentation

Daves Old Computers - Commodore PET
Inside the PET 2001
Inside the CBM 2001-N
Inside the CBM 2001-B
Inside the CBM 8032
Inside the PET 4032
Inside this CBM 8032 with Z80 upgrade
Commodore PET FAQ
PET RAM memory map

Daves Old Computers - Sinclair ZX80/81 - Timex 1000

A Mark-8 Experience
Pulse Probe Schematic
A Magnetic Core ROM

Jim's 8008 Page

Scanned Construction Article (Radio Electronics Mark-8)

The Apple 1
The Legendary Micro Professor MPF-1

Sol-20 manuals

SBC6120 Front Pannel
COSMAC Elf 2000
Elf 2000 Accessories

Home of the Z80 CPU
Decoding Z80 Opcodes
Mnemonic Size OP-Code Clock SZHPNC Effect
Z80 Instruction Breakdown by Machine Code
Full Z80 Opcode List Including Undocumented Opcodes
Z8400/Z84C00 NMOS/CMOS Z80 CPU Central Processing Unit
Z80 Family CPU User Manual
Z80 Family CPU Peripherals
The Undocumented Z80 Documented
Gameboy CPU
Nascom Main
Nascom Video
Article on CPU280 for TCJ (Z280)
EPROM All 24 and 28 pins EPROM pinout 2708 - 27512

replica 1


Computermuseum Muenchen

Site Map
Mark-8 Minicomputer
the digital group
MOS Kim-1
Apple 1
R6502 (chip layout)

Memoir of a Homebrew Computer Club Member

AIM 65

Welcome to kbdbabel - keyboard translator project

W65C02S 8-bit Microprocessor
W65C02S 8-bit Microprocessor
W65C816S 16-bit Microprocessor
W65C816S 8/16 bit Microprocessor
W65C21 Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA)
W65C21 Peripheral Interface Adapter (PIA)
W65C22 Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA)
W65C22 Versatile Interface Adapter (VIA)
65C51S Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter (ACIA)
W65C51S Asynchronous Communications Interface Adapter (ACIA)

Computerszene der DDR

eZ80 CPU User Manual
eZ80190 Product Specification

The Secret Life of Vector Generators

Ready. the Commodore Knowledge Base (Cameron Kaiser)
Partial Topical Index
The Secret Weapons of Commodore

Evolution of the Game Pad


Integrierte Schaltkreise (in DDR Rechnern)
Der Einchipmikrorechner

Sequential Boolean Analyzer

The Museum of HP Calculators
HP Forum Archives
Collector's Corner
Calculator Technologies
Benchmark Results
HP Journal Library

Welcome to the Jeff?s Calc Page !
Welcome to the my Emu41 Page !
Welcome to the my emu71 Page !
HP-IL Resource Page
A New HP-IL to Serial Translator Solution

Visual Transistor-level Simulation of the 6502 CPU and other chips!
Visualizing a Classic CPU In Action: The 6502

HP 48 Programming Documentation Files

The 6502/65C02/65C816 Instruction Set Decoded (incl undocumented)

Inside HP: A Narrative History of Hewlett-Packard from 1939-1990

The Boat Anchor Manual Archive
Mirror: /tek/

Physics Recreations: The Slide Rule

ARM Voyager Service Schematic

Index of /albillo/calc
Index of /albillo/calc/pdf

Crusty Programmer Story 1 (programming Scelbi 8H)

The HP-35 Design, A Case Study in Innovation

Vortrag Reparatur und Wartung (Harro Walsh)

The pocket computer museum

Welcome to Steve's Old Computer Museum!
Datapoint 2200
HP Model 85
IBM 5100
IBM 5110
IBM 5120
IBM System/23
MITS Altair 8800
IMSAI 8080
Synertek SYM Model 1
Rockwell AIM 65
Ohio Scientific Superboard II
Intel MCS-85
Z80 Starter Kit
Multitech Micro-Professor
Processor Technology Sol-20
Apple I
Apple II
Apple III
Apple IIGS
Commodore PET 2001
Commodore PET 4032 / 8032
Commodore B128-80
Commodore VIC-20
Commodore 64
Radio Shack TRS-80 (Model 1)
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model II
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model III
Exidy Sorcerer
Atari 800
Coleco Adam
Sinclair ZX80
Sinclair ZX81
Sinclair ZX Spectrum
Sinclair QL
Jupiter Ace
NEC PC-6001
Epson HX-20
Kyotronic KC-85
TRS-80 model 200
Epson PX-8
Cambridge Z88
Osborne 1
Osborne Vixen
Kaypro II
Commodore SX-64
IBM Personal Computer
Zenith eazy PC
Compaq Portable
IBM Portable PC
GRiD Compass 1101
Gavilan SC
Data General One
Osborne 3
IBM Convertible PC
IBM ThinkPad
Apple Lisa
Apple Macintosh
Atari ST
Commodore Amiga 1000
Canon Cat
NeXT "Cube"
Atari Portfolio
Poqut PC
Hewlett-Packard 95LX
Apple Newton
25 Random Facts About Old Computers

Oral History Panel on the Development and Promotion of the Intel 8080 Microprocessor
Zilog Oral History Panel on the Founding of the Company and the Development of the Z80 Microprocessor
Oral History Panel on the Development and Promotion of the Motorola 6800 Microprocessor

Inmos and the Transputer (part 1)
Inmos and the Transputer (part 2)

KC85/4 - Systemhandbuch

The N8VEM Home Brew Computer Project

TMS9918A/TMS9928A/TMS9929A Video Display Processors

Commodore plus/4 and Commodore 16 Memory Map

ORIC-1 Basic Programming Manual

Oric Atmos and Oric-1 Graphics and Machine Code Techniques

World of Spectrum
comp.sys.sinclair FAQ - Zilog Z80A Technical Information (incl undocumented)

ZX Docs - ZX80/ZX81 - ZX Spectrum
Gameboy Advance / Nintendo DS / DSi - Technical Info

The Complete Spectrum ROM Disassembly

CPCWiki - THE Amstrad CPC encyclopedia!
CPC464 Intern
CPC 664 / 6128 Intern
User Manual
Amstrad CPC 6128
Service Manuals

Das Schneider CPC Systembuch

TRS-80 Home page
Model 1 Overview
Model 1 Internals
Important ROM Addresses
Important RAM Addresses
Model 3 Overview
I/O Ports on the Models 3 and 4
TRS-80 Emulators

Sol20.org Home
Newsletters, Articles, Ads
Programs and Source

Olivetti Programma 101

Computer Conservation Society: Our Computer Heritage Project

GEC 4000 Computer

GEC Computers
GEC 2050 processor
2050 Sales Brochure dating from 1971
GEC 4000 series
GEC 4000 series processors
4080 Sales Brochure dating from 1973

A Part of the Minicomputer History
About the Honeywell DDPx16 Minicomputers
About the Philips P800 Minicomputers
P855M-P860M System Description

Honeywell Series 16
Series 16 History
Programming the Honeywell Series 16
Series 16 Documentation
316/516 Programmers Reference Manual

The DRAGON Archive
Downloads / Books
Downloads / Manuals
Downloads / ROMs
Downloads / Schematics

Block Diagram of 6502 Microprocessor, Circa 1979

6809 Emulation Page
Description Of The Motorola 6809 Instruction Set
MC6809 Cycle-By-Cycle Performance
The 'Documented' Undocumented Illegal 6809 Opcodes
A Memo on the Secret Features of 6309
HD63B09EP Technical Reference Guide

A Guide to Computing Pioneers in History

8085 instruction set: the octal table (including undocumented)
Notes on the PLA on the 8085 chip
Inside the ALU of the 8085 microprocessor
Silicon reverse engineering: The 8085's undocumented flags
The 8085's register file reverse engineered
Reverse-engineering the Z-80: the silicon for two interesting gates explained
The Z-80 has a 4-bit ALU. Here's how it works
The Z-80's 16-bit increment/decrement circuit reverse engineered
Why the Z-80's data pins are scrambled
How the Z80's registers are implemented
The 6502 CPU's overflow flag explained at the silicon level
The 6502 overflow flag explained mathematically
Reverse engineering a counterfeit 7805 voltage regulator
Understanding silicon circuits: inside the ubiquitous 741 op amp
555 timer teardown: inside the world's most popular IC

The Uzebox Project - Introduction
Uzebox Wiki
Video Modes
How Video Modes Work

public - pub - RECHNER
eaca - genie_1 - MANUALS
TRS-80 und VideoGenie ROM-Listing fuer Level II

Turning Japanese...
The 6560 odyssey...
System-Sellers: Omega Race (VIC-20)
System-Sellers: Matrix (VIC-20)

Nintendo Entertainment System Documentation

SMS Power!
Sega Master System Technical Information
Sega Master System VDP documentation
Software Reference Manual for the SEGA Mark III Console

V9958 MSX-Video

Sega Mega Drive

Programming the Gigatron

/pub/cbm/ - Welcome to the Commodore 8-bit file area!
Files under /pub/cbm/schematics - Commodore Schematics
Files under /pub/cbm/firmware - Commodore Firmware

Computer Keyboards
The Computer Front Panel
The Punched Card
Digital Magnetic Tape Recording

Intel 8085 instruction set (with flags, and including undocumented)
Intel 8085 instruction decode ROM
Intel 8085 instruction timing ROM

Der Heimcomputer KC-87 auch KC 85/1

Kleincomputer aus Mühlhausen
Kleincomputer aus Dresden
Computer Robotron A5105
Kleincomputer aus Riesa

Galaksija (replica)

galaksija plus

Color Computer FAQ

The ZX Spectrum Reverse Engineering and Clone Desgin Blog
The Beginning (The Harlequin home page)

Superfo Harlequin ZX Spectrum clone

Software and hardware by Bodo Wenzel
Jupiter Ace

Oric And ATMOS projects
ULA Deconstruction 1
The ORIC 1/ATMOS Unofficial ULA Guide
ULA Decapped!
The Oric-1 and ATMOS Unofficial ULA Guide Version 2.00

Welcome to Oric world !
Oric - The Story so Far
The hardware page !
Hardware Programming on the Oric
Tangerine's Microtan 65
Microtan 65 Hardware and Software Description

Sinclair ZX80
Index of /Sinclair/ ZX80/
Sinclair ZX81
Index of /Sinclair/ ZX81/
ZX Spectrum 48K / 128K
Index of /Sinclair/ ZX_Spectrum/ _zx48/
Index of /Sinclair/ ZX_Spectrum/ _zx128/
Sinclair QL
Index of /Sinclair/ QL/
Cambridge Z88 Notebook
Index of /Sinclair/ Z88/
Amstrad CPC 464
Index of /Amstrad/ CPC464/
Amstrad CPC 664 / 6128
Index of /Amstrad/ CPC664-CPC6128/
Amstrad Joyce
Index of /Amstrad/ Joyce-PCW/

TRS-80 Technical Manual

Coco Chronicles - UNC Computer Science

Computer Docs
BBC Micro Docs
System Memory Map for the BBC
BBC/Master Circuit Diagrams
Circuit Diagram for Atom Microcomputer
Circuit Diagram for BBC Microcomputer
Gameboy Docs

IBM 51xx PC Family Computers
IBM 5150 - Early Versions
IBM 5170 - Motherboard Versions
IBM 5150/5160 - Some IBM Expansion Cards and Options
IBM Fixed Disk Adapter
IBM 5170 - Some IBM Expansion Cards and Options
Manual Information for IBM 4860/5140/5150/5155/5160/5162/5170
IBM 5150 - Technical Reference - 6025005 - AUG81 (PC 16k)
IBM 5150 - Technical Reference - 6322507 - APR84 (PC 64k)
IBM 5155/5160 - Technical Reference - 6280089 - MAR86 (PC/XT)
IBM 5170 - Technical Reference - 6280070 - SEP85 (PC/AT)
IBM Monochrome Display and Printer Adapter (MDA)
IBM Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter (CGA)
IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA)
IBM Professional Graphics Controller (PGC)
IBM Printer Adapter
IBM Asynchronous Communications Adapter
IBM Game Control Adapter
IBM 5.25" Diskette Drive Adapter
IBM Serial/Parallel Adapter
IBM Fixed Disk and Diskette Drive Adapter
IBM DOS Version 1.10 - Reference - Second Edition MAY82
IBM DOS Version 2.10 - Reference - First Edition JAN84
IBM DOS Version 3.30 - Reference - First Edition APR87

Unspecified 8085 op codes enhance programming

User Manuals
Apple ][ Reference Manual
Apple // Reference Manual (For //e Only)
Apple II Technical Reference Manual (Part1)
Apple II Technical Reference Manual (Part2)
Apple II Technical Reference Manual (Part3)
Apple II Technical Reference Manual (Part4)
Apple IIGS Hardware Reference
What really killed the Apple III

David Tebbutt's pre-web (partial) archive (PCW Sinclair reviews)

Fabien Sanglard's Website
Genesis Software Manual
Everything You Have Always Wanted to Know about the Playstation
Jaguar Technical Reference Manual: TOM&JERRY

MC680x0 Reference 1.1
MC68000 Instructions timing

Welcome to the Atari FTP Archive
Atari ST game packs
Atari Books
Programmers' Reference Guide for the Atari 400-800 Computers
De Re Atari
Atari ST Books
The First Atari ST Book
The Concise Atari ST 68000 Programmer's Reference Guide
Atari Documents
Custom Chips Datasheets and Databooks
TIA 1A - Television Interface Adaptor (Model 1A)
Atari Manuals
Atari Schematics
Emulators and Utils

Atari 400 800 XL XE Books / Documents
Atari 400 800 XL XE Books
Atari 400 800 XL XE Manuals
Atari BASIC Reference Manual
Atari Disk Operating System Reference Manual
Atari 400 800 XL XE Technical Documents
Atari 400/800 Hardware Manual
Atari 400 800 XL XE FAQ
1.13) What is the internal hardware arrangement of the 8-bit Atari?
1.14) What are the pinouts for the various connectors on the Atari?
6.1.2) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?
6.10) What graphics enhancements are there for the Atari?
6.11) What types of memory upgrades are there for the Atari?
6.12) What personality boards were produced for the Atari 800?
7.1.1) What is the Atari Operating System?
7.1.2) What modified versions of the Atari OS were released?
7.3.2) What are RealDOS, SpartaDOS X, and XDOS?
7.3.3) What are MyPicoDOS and Micro-SpartaDOS?
9.1) What file formats for entire disks/tapes/cartridges are there?
10.1) How can I read/write Atari diskettes with my other computer?
10.2) How can my other computer utilize my Atari disk drive?

Willkommen im Atarimuseum
Wissenswertes über Atari
Die Geschichte von Atari
Der Video Game Crash von 1983
Die Atari Computer: Von Colleen bis Falcon
Atari 400 und 800
Atari XL
Atari XE
Atari Sierra, Gaza und Mickey
Atari ST
Atari STF
Atari Mega ST
Atari STE
Atari Mega STE
Atari TT
Atari Falcon 030
Atari Stacy
Atari ST Book
Atari ST Pad
Atari ATW 800
Atari TOS
Atari PC1
Atari PC2
Atari PC3
Atari PC4
Atari PC5
Atari Portfolio (DIP Pocket PC)

Amiga History
The Twists and Turns of the Amiga Saga
The first Amiga owner: 1982 - 1984
Bouncing Back- The origins of the Boing Ball
Amiga: The Next Generation Atari?
The History of the Amiga and Atari
Jay Miner Interview
Jay Miner Interview Pasadena, September 1992.
RJ Mical on the Amiga, Commodore and everything in between
The Amiga Chipset
Amiga Prototypes
The Lorraine prototype
Amiga PC Developer Machine
AMIGA 3000+ and AA3000
Amiga Computers
Commodore Amiga 1000
Commodore Amiga 500
Commodore Amiga 2000
Commodore Amiga 2500
Amiga CDTV
Commodore Amiga 3000
Commodore Amiga 3000T
Commodore Amiga 600
Commodore Amiga 4000
Commodore Amiga 4000T
Commodore Amiga 1200
Amiga CD32
Amiga OS

Mac Plus technical information

Building the Mac
Documenting the Mac
Special Section of Documents by Jef Raskin
Macintosh 512k Logic Board Schematic
Canon Cat
The Swyft by Information Applicance Inc.
DigiBarn Docs: "How Apple Booted Up"

Amiga Hardware Reference Manual
Amiga Machine Language
Amiga C for Beginners

Commodore Amiga A500/A2000 Technical Reference Manual

THE 6561 Video Interface Chip (VIC)

Jupiter ACE Hardware Index
Jupiter ACE 3K issue 1 & 2 schematics
What is a Jupiter ACE?
Deep Thought Disc Drive System
Ace Multi Interface by Edwin Blink/SPT
Colour Board from ETI Magazine April 1984

Inside Macintosh

Starring The Computer (in Movies and Television)

Commodore Legends: Michael Tomczyk ? Part I
Commodore Legends: Michael Tomczyk ? Part II
Commodore Legends: Dave Haynie ? Part I
Commodore Legends: Dave Haynie ? Part II
Commodore Legends: Petro Tyschtschenko
Commodore Legends: Bil Herd

Wouter's Apple Macintosh : Mac Plus PALs

The Oldskool PC
The Basement
Why old computers are never obsolete
Welcome to the new Oldskool PC network FTP server
The Guides
Getting Old Software Running on Newer PCs
History and Memories of the IBM PCjr and Tandy 1000
Welcome to The Oldskool PC Carnival Sideshow!
Oldskool Tales
Life Before Demos
PC Demos Explained

Radio Shack Lore

Willkommen bei der JOYCE-User-AG e.V.
Schneider Joyce oder Amstrad PCW?
Software für den JOYCE !
Amstrad PCW Hardware-Referenz

Canon Cat resources
Cat Leap and a Two-Part Cursor
The Canon Cat Computer: Jef Raskin s Work Processor

The Rise of MOS Technology & The 6502
Computers Using The MOS 6502 CPU
The Legendary Chuck Peddle, Inventor of The Personal Computer
Bill Mench - The Brains Behind The Brains
Early Commodore History
Jack Tramiel - King of the Home Computer
Jack Tramiel - A Tough Man For A Tough Job From Commodore to Atari
Jack Tramiel Declares War! on Commodore
The Crazy Story of How Irving Gould Ended Up Owning and Killing Commodore
Mehdi Ali - The End of Commodore
Commodore Bankruptcy - Associated Press 1994
Michael Tomczyk - Commodore VIC-20 History & What went Wrong

The Home Computer Wars

Search the GBC
GameBase64 FTP

Mike's PCjr Page
PCjr History
PCjr Hardware Notes
PCjr Software Notes
PCjr Modifications

Welcome to the Retrocomputing ArchivE
IBM PC and Compatible Documentation
IBM PCjr Technical Reference

ftp.apple.asimov.net documentation apple3
The Apple /// FAQ File V.5.2
III Bits - John Jeppson's Guided Tour of Highway III
Re: Apple IIe question (DOS History)
SOS Reference Manual, Volume 1
Apple /// Level 2 Service Reference Manual

Llamasoft, What's it all about?
The Minotaur Project philosophy
Llamasoft History
Softography, a Llamasoft software archive

Automatic Generated Disassembly of `rom-1.bin'
BASIC 4.0 Interpreter ROM ($B000 - $DFFF)
FAQ - VIC-20 Classic Game & Home Computing System
VIC-20 Cartridge Rarity & Gameplay listing
VIC-20 Cartridge Software Reviews - a.k.a. Cartzilla!

The Unofficial Amstrad WWW Resource
The 32K screen
Synchronising with the CRTC and display
Ram management
"Arnold V" Specification (plus)
Disassembly of the CPC6128 operating system ROM
Disassembly of Locomotive BASIC v1.1
Technical information about Locomotive BASIC

CPC Game Reviews
Games List
Welcome to ftp.nvg.ntnu.no
Current directory is /pub/cpc/games

Amstrad CPC & GeoWorks
Amstrad CPC emulator for Linux
Schneider CPC-Emulator für Linux

Arnold CPC Emulator

Commodore Computer Online Museum - CCOM
Jack Tramiel Interview (Data Welt 03/86)
Amiga 1000
A1060 Sidecar
Amiga 2000
A2088, A2286 und A2386 Brueckenkarten
Commodore PC-1
Commodore PC-10 / PC-20
Commodore PC-30 bis PC-60
Vergleich C= PC-1 und Atari PC (Data Welt 10/1987)

QuickLinks ST
The Atari ST Quick FAQ

John Elliott's homepage
Intel GEM main page
CP/M Main Page
JOYCE (Amstrad PCW emulator)
PCW Hardware
Amstrad XT Pages
Vintage PCs

Atari XL
Atari XL Literatur
Atari ST
Atari ST Literatur
Atari 1040STF-Handbuch
Atari Profibuch ST-STE-TT

Old Computer Font References

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This page is by Neil Franklin, last modification 2024.03.12