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Neil Franklin's Computer Folklore/History Links Page

Visited Links

Directory /pub/cbm/documents/chipdata/
The MOS 6567/6569 video controller (VIC-II) and its application in the Commodore 64

André's 8-bit pages
GeckOS/A65 Operating System
CS/A65 and Gecko Computer
Simple Microcomputers and Trainers
What is the KIM-1?
KIM-1 schematic
Build Your Own KIM-1 with Ruud Baltissen
Synertek SYM-1 Resources
65C02 Opcodes
PET index
Commodore PET Programming Model
Roll your own PET4032 (Fat40)

DEC PDP-1 (greeng3)
Programmed Data Processor-1 Handbook
Picture Full
Picture Console
Picture Status lights
Picture Type 30 Osc

Picture separate Console with CRT version

The Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-8 (Douglas W. Jones)
A Programmer's Reference Manual for the PDP-8
DEC's 1965 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
DEC's 1967 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
DEC's 1974 PDP-8 Pocket Reference Card
PDP-8 CPU Module Maps
DEC Omnibus Modules
The PDP-8 Collection
Notes on the History of the DEC PDP-8
The Control Data Corporation 160 Computer
Photos of the Control Data Corporation 160 Computer
A Programmer's Reference Manual for the CDC-160

Picture of Doug Jones' pdp8/e emulator front panel

ersatz11 PDP-11 Emulation System (dbit)

Here is an official product announcement for the 4004, for anyone who is interested

Sinclair / Science of Cambridge MK14

Boards and Components
Inside the Altair

PDP-8 Frequently Asked Questions

PDP-10 index (Joe Smith)
Timeline at Digital.com
PDP-10 opcodes, numeric order
PDP-10 Machine Language
PDP models
PDP10 models
VT100-series Torture Test
Summary of ANSI standards for ASCII terminals
XKL TD-1 newer

PDP-6 Home Page (Tom Knight)
DEC System Module Home Page

Carl Friend's Minicomputer "Museum" (Carl R. Friend)
- The Catalogue -
Digital Equipment Corporation KI-10 Central Processor
Digital Equipment Corporation PDT-11/150 system
Digital Equipment Corporation VK-100 ("GiGi") system
Digital Equipment Corporation VAXstation 3100 M76

The origin of Spacewar (J. M. Graetz)

Spacewar Readme
Index of /groups/el/projects/spacewar/sources

Ready. the Commodore Knowledge Base (Cameron Kaiser)

Welcome to the *New* Project 64!
Project 64 FAQ
Project 64 Introduction and Stuff
Index in plain ASCII text
Project 64 Links
Project 64 Hardware Dox

DEC 36-bit computers
Manuals for DEC 36-bit Computers
DECsystem-1080/1090 System Description
DECsystem-10/DECSYSTEM-20 Processor Reference Manual
Maintenance Prints for DEC 36-bit Computers

Eric's Eccentric Emporium of Egregiously Effervescent Effluvium, Etc.
Retrocomputing (Eric Smith)
PDP-10 Model Information
DECSYSTEM-2065 Unloading
Intel iAPX-432 Micromainframe
Hewlett-Packard Calculators
HP Calculator Memory Sizes
HP Voyager Calculator Variants
HP Calculator Chips
Microcode-Level Calculator Simulation (HHC 2004)
Do-It-Yourself RPN Calculator Hardware (HHC 2005, Richard Ottosen)

PDP-10 Serial Number 1354 (Scott Statton)

MicroVAX/VAXstation Systems FAQ
MicroVAX/VAXstation Systems Text FAQ

ACM Classic Papers Monthly
Reflections on Trusting Trust (Ken Thompson)
Reflections on Trusting Trust (.PDF)
Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks
The Anti-Mac Interface
Simplicity Betrayed (precise emulation)

Usenet Olympics

The Byte Fiasco (Jerry Pournelle)

The Hercules System/370, ESA/390, and z/Architecture Emulator
Introduction to Generating and Running OS/360 on Hercules

Dan's Collection of Old IBM "Iron"
IBM System 360 Model 30 Operator Control Panel
Project Bring-it-Back-to-Life 3, IBM System 370 Model 135
Project Bring-it-Back-to-Life 4, IBM System 370 Model 155

The Unix Heritage Society
PDP Unix Preservation Society Home Page
FAQ on the PUPS Archive and Unix on the PDP-11
What Unixes run on What PDPs?
UNIX Installation Instructions
Setting up Unix - Sixth Edition
Setting Up Unix - Seventh Edition
Regenerating System Software
Installing and Operating 2.9BSD
Installing and Operating 2.11BSD on the PDP-11
Details of the PUPS Archive
Related Images and Photos
Related Web Pages and On-line Information
Welcome to Quasijarus!
Architectures Supported as Mainstream
supports various VAX hardware
VAX Architecture Overview
Quasijarus Consortium Official VAX Terminology

The PDP-11 FAQ (HTML, newer version)

The PDP-11 FAQ (ASCII, older version)

Highgate's PDP-8 Page
Index of /pdp8/photos
Run a PDP-8 on Yet Another PDP-8 Web Site

Aaron's LINC, PDP-8 and PDP-12 Page

pdp-11 (Ákos Varga)
The Pre-Life of a Legend is another Legend
How the PDP-11 Was Born
PDP-11/20, /15
PDP-11/40, /35
PDP-11/45, /50, /55
PDP-11/05, /10
PDP-11/23, /24, /23+
MicroPDP-11/83, /84
Computer collections and other interesting places

Pete Siemsen's TECO collection
alt.lang.teco ftp-able docs/tutorials for TECO: where?
List of TECO Commands, TECO Version 1132

My Antique Computer Collection (Dan Mathis, fuboco1)

Blinkenlights Archeological Institute
Pop Quiz: What was the first personal computer?

Tempest: Detailed theory of operation (old video games)

Re: a naive question (Strychalski ASCII)
The Why and Wherefore
The Great Computer Dark Ages -- ASCII

The Story Behind the Lisa (and Macintosh) Interface

The Multics Scheduler
Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation (thvv)
The History of Electronic Mail (thvv)

Acorn BBC Micro

ascii of the BBC motherboard

Index of /pub/pdp10
Index of /pub/pdp10/info
KL10 Paging
Massbus Pinout and RP06 Drive Regs
The pager used for ITS
PCLSRing: Keeping Process State Modular
Index of /pub/pdp10/its
Index of /pub/pdp10/tops10
Index of /pub/pdp10/tops10/decus

Paul Pierce's Computer Collection
The PDP-8 Family
front panel
More PDP-8 Pictures

Run a PDP-8 on Yet Another PDP-8 Web Site
Site Map
PDP-8/E and PDP-8/M Computer Information
PDP-8/E Picture Top view of 8E and boards
PDP-8/E Picture G619 core without cover
PDP-8/E Picture Closeup of core mats for single bit
PDP-8/E Picture G227 X-Y core driver
PDP-8/E Picture G104D core sense inhibit board
TU56 DECtape Drive Information
DF32 and DS32 Drive Information

Old computers
PDP-8 in rack
PDP-8 closeup to switches
PDP-8/I racks
PDP-8/I cpu rack open
WT-78 terminal

Login to the... VAXbar

The Universal Library - Saving Bell Books
Computer Structures: Readings & Examples - C. Gordon Bell, Allen Newell
Computer Engineering - C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, John E. McNamara
Designing Computers and Digital Systems

Core Memory

David G. Conroy - FPGA-Based Retrocomputing
PDP-4/X System Reference Manual
front panel program
PDP-8/X System Reference Manual
front panel program

Moving Old Iron - A Series, Move Report: PDP-8s and PDP-11/34a

The Computer Collection
The IBM 1410 Data Processing System
PDP-8/L and PDP-12
The PDP-11 Family
Terminals and Peripherals

Smithsonian Interview with Gordon Bell
Computer Structures: Principles and Examples

DEC 12-Bit Computers


Sinclair ZX80 - How to build your own ZX80/ZX81
Jupiter Ace - How I built my own ...and details to allow you do the same
The Compukit UK101 - How to build your own micro UK101

Welcome to the Update Computer Club
Administration of Update's machines
Hardware @ Update
Update's PDP11-systems


The 65020

nocrew's PDP-10 stuff
PDP-10 Processors
the PDP-6 the KA10 and the KI10
Directory listing of /its/alan/ (ITS emacs, info, sysdoc, system, teco)

The Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS)

The Foonly F1 Computer

PDP-10 Software Archive
TOPS-10-V603-MAIN-MON (Extracted files)
KLAD Diagnostics Sources
7.04 DOCC tape
TOPS-10 Operating System Commands Manual
TOPS-10 User Utilities Manual
TOPS-10 Operator's Guide
TOPS-10 Software Installation Guide

These are pictures of KS10 S/N 4469
This is the front of the KS itself
Here is the TU45
And this is the VT100 I'm using for a console

Historical and Hysterical Microcomputers Page
Intel 4004 - World's First Microcomputer
4004 - Intel SIM4-01 (136kb)
4004 CPU Photo (94kb)

CSIRAC's vital statistics
The Design
Main Store
The Console

Space Games of Fame

Computing at Columbia Timeline
The IBM 360/91
explanation of the buttons, knobs, dials, and switches
The DEC VT100 Terminal
The DECSYSTEM-20 at Columbia University (1977-1988)

GUI timeline

Al Kossow's House-O-Hax
Al's Xerox Workstation Collection
The Minicomputer Orphanage

Origins and Development of TOPS-20

UNIVAC Memories
Minus Zero

Out Of The Garage And Into The Museum Computer Preservation Is The New Old Thing

The Corestore

DEC10 (KL-10 pictures)
Corestore Collection - Real terminals, emulated systems...

Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Third Edition by John L. Hennessy and David A. Patterson

PDP-6 display (86K)

The Computer History Simulation Project (SIMH)
Available Simulators
Software Kits
System Photographs
Papers on Simulation and Historic Systems
Preserving Computing's Past: Restoration and Simulation



Build a Nixie Tube Digital Clock
Display and counting tubes
Analogue to digital conversion by glassware!


CLiPS The new graphical Operating System for your C64 with CMD SuperCPU

UNIVAC I: The First Mass-Produced Computer

The Development of the C Language
Very early C compilers and language

A User Machine in a Time-Sharing System (B.W.Lampson)

Eric's Slide Rule Site

ITS - The Incompatible Timesharing System
Index of /u/mirian/its/files/
Building an ITS from scratch on the Supnik PDP-10 simulator

Index of /comp-hist
working file 126. as of May 8, 2000
Digital Computer Museum Catalog (1981)
A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems
Example Tour
CDC 160A
GE-625 / 635 Programming Reference Manual

DEC PDP-10 Emulation

The homebrew PDP-11 console project

ZX81 in one FPGA
ZX81 in one Complex PLD

Interviewee: Masatoshi Shima (4004)
25 Microchips That Shook the World

The F-14A Central Air Data Computer Microprocessor - The World's First Microprocessor Chip Set
F14A Microprocessor Design Paper
F14A Microprocessor Chip Set

The Evolution of Forth
Table of Contents
Chuck Moore's Programming Language
Development and Dissemination
Forth Without Chuck Moore
Hardware Implementations of Forth
Present and Future Directions

Bill to Linus: You Owe Me (Bill claims open PC, IBM story)

ca 1970 DECsystem-10 multi-strike printout of Spock holding Enterprice model

Pictures from the Tymshare facility on Bubb Road in Cupertino, CA

Dan Murphy's TENEX and TOPS-20 Papers

Australian Computer Museum Society Inc
Happy Snaps
KI-10 console

Welcome to SV (ITS on KLH10)

Meet the Family
Terminals FAQ
VT05 Alphanumeric Display Terminal Reference Manual
DECscope Users' Manual (VT-5x)
VT55-E, F, H, J DECgraphic Scope Users' Manual
VT100 Series Technical Manual
VT220 Programmer Reference Manual
VT240 Series Programmer Pocket Guide
Installing and Using the VT320 Video Terminal
VT320 Soft Character Sets
VT320 Fonts
VT330/VT340 Programmer Reference Manual Volume 2: Graphics Programming
14 Sixel Graphics

DEC ReGIS Graphics News

Archive of Video Terminal Information
General Information
Sixel Graphics News (RE: What is SIXEL?)
DEC Terminals

Sweet Sixteen

The Retrocomputing Museum

Nixie & Dekatron Tubes

World Power Systems
Nixie Indicators and Decimal Counting Tubes
Model 11 Nixie Clocks

Welcome to Cathode Corner
The NC600 Nixie Desk Clock from Cathode Corner
Here is the scope clock in a Plexiglas cabinet
More Info Here
SC60 Scope Pocket Watch from Cathode Corner

Nixie Tube Digital Desk Clock (and Wrist Watch)

The Original 'Lambda Papers' by Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman

Commodore and Apple II Resources
Introducing ... the CommodoreOne

TOPS-20 on a palmtop

the flying head, the hair, the dirt particle...

Signetics fully encoded 9046xN Random Access Write-Only-Memory (page 1)
Typical Characteristic Curves (page 2)

C64DX/C65 System Specification

The ML1 macro processor

Historic Documents in Computer Science

RCS/RI 1090 CPU and two MH10s with the doors open

Interview with Bob Yannes (C64 SID designer)

The High Voltage SID Collection

nice PDP-8/S picture

FPGA Arcade - Programmable Gaming Hardware

Bit-Slice Design: Controllers and ALUs

The Mark-8 Mini Computer
The Mark-8 Minicomputer (Jon Titus)

Implementation of a List Processing Machine (Thomas F Knight)

Version 7 Upgrade
Download v7upgrade-0.0.2.tar.gz

The Cray-Cyber Project - interactive access to supercomputer

US4677890: Sound interface circuit (Patent Docs for SID Chip)

Apple 1984 Newsweek Advertising Insert

Core Memory (with a little Theory)

MC14500 ICU

Imlac PDS-1

Imlac Anatomy (PDS-1D)

IBM 360 front pannel

E2PROM Programmer
Electrocute a Hotdog
A Brief History of Automatic Computers
Intel 4004 CPU
4004 Single Chip 4-bit P-Channel Microprocessor
Nikola Tesla

Recollections of Early Chip Development at Intel

The Intel 4004
Federico's October 2001 Speech

DEC XY Display Simulator (Phil Budne)

Slightly damaged core plane with table salt for scale

tt: Tetris for Terminals

Southwest Technical Products Corp - Michael Holley's SWTPC 6800/6809 documentation collection
Don Lancaster's TV Typewriter
CT-1024 Terminal System Kit (TV Typewriter II)
Radio Electronics TV Typewriter II
Letter from Bill Gates (a.k.a. "The Software Flap")


Atari 2600 Hacks
Atari 2600 Programming
2600 101
Stella Programmer's Guide


Bob Bemer and Communication (ASCII)
The Great Curly Brace Trace Chase
That Powerful ESCAPE Character -- Key and Sequences
EBCDIC and the P-Bit (The Biggest Computer Goof Ever)

Black box vs. showcase (electromechanical Pong)


Brian Provinciano's The Low Level: Hardware
The Devtendo

C64 Unlimited
Games Archive


Mein Rechner tut's auch ohne Strom...
Abakus und Rechenbretter
Rechenschieber mit logarithmischen Skalen
Kolonnenaddierer und Zählgeräte
Lehrmittel (darunter Digi-Comp

The Original Macintosh

Block I Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC)

My Collection of Vintage Machines
ASR 33 Teletype
IMSAI 8080
Processor Technology SOL-20

First Computermuseum of Nova Scotia
The Kenbak 1 - The first Personal Computer

TECO Pocket Guide

The Electronics Australia EDUC-8 microcomputer
EDUC-8 architecture description

Micro Professor MPF-1

The HP 9100: The Initial Journey
The HP 9100 Project: An Exothermic Reaction
Tom Osborne?s Story in His Own Words
The HP 9100?s PC-Board ROM

Welcome to Vern Graner's KIM-1 Page
Photo Gallery
System Docs for the KIM-1

Daves Old Computers
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800
Daves Old Computers - ALTAIR 8800 - Documentation
Daves Old Computers - IMSAI 8080

A Mark-8 Experience
Pulse Probe Schematic
A Magnetic Core ROM

Jim's 8008 Page
Scanned Construction Article

The Apple 1
The Legendary Micro Professor MPF-1

Sol-20 manuals

SBC6120 Front Pannel
COSMAC Elf 2000
Elf 2000 Accessories

replica 1


Computermuseum Muenchen

Site Map
Mark-8 Minicomputer
the digital group
MOS Kim-1
Apple 1
R6502 (chip layout)

Memoir of a Homebrew Computer Club Member

AIM 65

Welcome to kbdbabel - keyboard translator project

Welcome to my GUI Gallery

Computerszene der DDR

The Secret Life of Vector Generators

The Secret Weapons of Commodore

Evolution of the Game Pad


Integrierte Schaltkreise (in DDR Rechnern)

The Museum of HP Calculators
HP 9100A/B
HP 9810A
HP Forum Archives
Collector's Corner
Calculator Technologies
Benchmark Results
HP Journal Library

Bring Back the [hp]15C

HP-41 Programmable Calculator

HP-IL Resource Page
A New HP-IL to Serial Translator Solution

Visual Transistor-level Simulation of the 6502 CPU and other chips!
Visualizing a Classic CPU In Action: The 6502

HP 48 Programming Documentation Files

The 6502/65C02/65C816 Instruction Set Decoded

Welcome to the Jeff?s Calc Page !
Welcome to the my Emu41 Page !
Welcome to the my emu71 Page !

Inside HP: A Narrative History of Hewlett-Packard from 1939-1990

The Boat Anchor Manual Archive
Mirror: /tek/

Physics Recreations: The Slide Rule

ARM Voyager Service Schematic

The KFKI TPA series: much more than just "clones"...

Daves Old Computers - IBM 5100
5100 PALM logic module
Daves Old Computers - IBM 5100 Disassembled

Crusty Programmer Story 1 (programming Scelbi 8H)

Vortrag Reparatur und Wartung (Harro Walsh)

The pocket computer museum

KC85/4 - Systemhandbuch

The N8VEM Home Brew Computer Project

TMS9918A/TMS9928A/TMS9929A Video Display Processors

Commodore plus/4 and Commodore 16 Memory Map

ORIC-1 Basic Programming Manual

Oric Atmos and Oric-1 Graphics and Machine Code Techniques

World of Spectrum

ZX Docs - ZX80/ZX81 - ZX Spectrum

The Complete Spectrum ROM Disassembly

CPCWiki - THE Amstrad CPC encyclopedia!
CPC464 Intern
CPC 664 / 6128 Intern
User Manual
Amstrad CPC 6128

Das Schneider CPC Systembuch

TRS-80 Home page
Model 1 Overview
Model 1 Internals
Important ROM Addresses
Important RAM Addresses
Model 3 Overview
I/O Ports on the Models 3 and 4
TRS-80 Emulators

Sol20.org Home
Newsletters, Articles, Ads

Olivetti Programma 101

Computer Conservation Society: Our Computer Heritage Project

GEC 4000 Computer

GEC Computers
GEC 2050 processor
2050 Sales Brochure dating from 1971
GEC 4000 series
GEC 4000 series processors
4080 Sales Brochure dating from 1973

A Part of the Minicomputer History
About the Honeywell DDPx16 Minicomputers
About the Philips P800 Minicomputers
P855M-P860M System Description

Honeywell Series 16
Series 16 History
Programming the Honeywell Series 16
Series 16 Documentation
316/516 Programmers Reference Manual

The DRAGON Archive
Downloads / Books
Downloads / ROMs
Downloads / Schematics

Block Diagram of 6502 Microprocessor, Circa 1979

6809 Emulation Page
Description Of The Motorola 6809 Instruction Set
MC6809 Cycle-By-Cycle Performance
The 'Documented' Undocumented Illegal 6809 Opcodes
HD63B09EP Technical Reference Guide
A Memo on the Secret Features of 6309

A Guide to Computing Pioneers in History

Reverse-engineering the Z-80: the silicon for two interesting gates explained
The Z-80 has a 4-bit ALU. Here's how it works
The Z-80's 16-bit increment/decrement circuit reverse engineered

The Uzebox Project - Introduction
Uzebox Wiki
Video Modes
How Video Modes Work

eaca - genie_1 - MANUALS
TRS-80 und VideoGenie ROM-Listing fuer Level II

Turning Japanese...
The 6560 odyssey...
System-Sellers: Omega Race (VIC-20)
System-Sellers: Matrix (VIC-20)

Nintendo Entertainment System Documentation

SMS Power!
Sega Master System Technical Information

Software Reference Manual for the SEGA Mark III Console

V9958 MSX-Video

Sega Mega Drive

Programming the Gigatron

Files under /pub/cbm/schematics

Home | Links | Computer Folklore/History

This page is by Neil Franklin, last modification 2018.10.13